Dusk Network Develops Exclusive Tech Innovation: Reinforced Concrete
By Robin Massini

Apr 20, 2021

Breakthrough technology signifies a major leap for zero-knowledge possibilities.

Reinforced Concrete is a new cryptographic hash function created by Dusk Network’s lead cryptographer Dmitry Khovratovich. This hash function increases scalability by factors previously unseen in the industry and significantly increases the speed of verifiable computation. Such a development is considered the ‘Holy Grail’ of verifiable computation, and allows for the creation of entirely new use cases involving recursion or roll-ups.

“This function enables the most efficient in-circuit zero-knowledge hashing to date and makes the set membership proofs and verifiable computation even faster. We’re now able to use time-tested components of hash function design and benefit from decades of public scrutiny and usage to outperform the current industry standards. - Dmitry Khovratovich

The name Reinforced Concrete alludes to its structure: just like a modern house, the new function consists of Bricks, Concrete, and Bars, with each part serving a distinct purpose.

· Bricks are solid algebraic components.
· Concrete is a diffusing element that cements the bricks together.
· Bars are steel parts that reinforce the entire construction against certain attacks.

These Bars are at the heart of our innovation, and the steel needed to create them is delivered by our PLOOKup ‘factory’. This ‘factory’ allows us to look up values from tables to use for the hashing algorithm, all within the circuit itself. Besides the aforementioned benefit of increased scalability, our tables ensure that the new hash function cannot be broken.

A Zero-Knowledge technology milestone.

At the very core of Dusk lays our adherence to privacy and compliance, enabled by our usage of Zero-Knowledge technology. It is on this bedrock that our Reinforced Concrete breakthrough is built.

💡 For those unfamiliar with the concept, we’ve created an expansive compendium of our usage of ZK tech ‘PLONK’: https://dusk.network/news/zkp-compendium

The two key technologies that have enabled Reinforced Concrete are PLONK and PLOOKup:


A way of running a computer programme in a zero-knowledge manner, with total privacy. It is essentially a privacy wrapper: no one is able to see what goes on inside, but we can prove what went on is legitimate, and that this proof is impervious to falsification. Our own Rust-based implementation of PLONK gives us an edge that ensures readability and usability remain fundamental attributes without compromising speed.

2) PLOOKup

A portmanteau of ‘PLONK’ and ‘lookups’. This function is utilized for recursion. It allows us to perform arithmetic in fields that are ‘non-native’. Certain operations that were too costly to execute are now possible through this ultra compatible ‘PLONK with lookups’.

We’ll be releasing the full technology paper once it’s been finalized and published.

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