Understanding Real-World Assets (RWAs) Part II

Understanding Real-World Assets (RWAs) Part II

Understanding Real-World Assets Part II

The Future of Compliant Real-World Asset Tokenization 

The tokenization of classical assets is fast becoming the holy grail for the blockchain industry, with many now turning their attention to how they can tokenize traditional financial assets. At Dusk, that was our goal from the beginning - building the infrastructure to support regulated and decentralized finance - and everything in our tech stack was built with this end in mind, particularly our focus on compliance and privacy. 

Adherence to the Market in Crypto Assets (MiCA) regulatory framework is a top priority for Dusk, ensuring alignment with stringent EU standards. Dusk's partnership and stake in NPEX, a holder of a Multilateral Trading Facility (MTF) license, empowers the compliant tokenization of securities on the Dusk blockchain. 

An image of an official building with an EU flag, small people look at a giant book of legislation

As a leading entity in the compliant blockchain space, Dusk is also taking advantage of the EU's DLT pilot regime. This innovative program allows Dusk to experiment, in a controlled environment, with Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) for trading and settling transactions with a select group of high value partners. This opens the door for testing and refinement of DLT in securities trading.

The XSC contract, pivotal to Dusk's tokenization strategy, simplifies asset management and compliance by taking the asset management lifecycle on-chain. All transactions and ownership changes related to these tokens are automatically tracked and synchronized on the blockchain, while at the same time maintaining end-user privacy. Additionally, the XSC token contract also ensures automation of dividends and voting rights, eliminating the need for manual intervention while maintaining full regulatory compliance.

5 interconnected blocks to represent an idea of what a blockchain is

Moreover, Dusk emphasizes confidentiality, with zero-knowledge proofs keeping transaction details private, a crucial feature in regulated markets where things like corporate bonds or even carbon credits are issued, preventing common issues in regular DLTs like frontrunning and the leaking of confidential business transactions. Advanced cryptography is at the core of Dusk's compliance strategy. A key aspect of this is Zedger, Dusk's account-based transaction model for tracking securities balances. Designed to comply with the MiFID II directive, Zedger ensures that all transactions of on-chain securities adhere to the established rules, making it an invaluable tool for regulated financial operations.

Together with the XSC contract, which incorporates advanced features such as the ability to revert transaction, explicit approval, voting, dividend payouts and managing whitlists, Dusk empowers auditors and regulators to ensure compliance through the entire lifecycle of an asset, while also maintaining privacy and strong security guarantees.

The network's latest introduction, Citadel, a Self-Sovereign Identity/Digital Identity protocol, strengthens this aspect even further, ensuring data privacy and security. As an integral part of the Dusk protocol, Citadel ensures that any transaction on the network can be MiCA compliant.

Case Studies

A woman holds a cell phone that reads "Tokenized RWAs" with a "Trade" button at the bottom of the screen

Case Study 1: Tokenization of Stocks

Stock markets are a cornerstone of the global economy and are a key feature of traditional finance, yet they are plagued by complexities and inefficiencies. The traditional way of issuing, trading, and managing a company's stocks involves an opaque system that is susceptible to issues like insider trading, front-running, and mismatches between issued and floating stocks. The paperwork, protracted settlement times, and hefty costs associated with this system can deter potential investors, limit market liquidity, and make it especially challenging for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to participate in traditional markets.

Dusk's Confidential Security Token (XSC) contract offers an innovative solution to these challenges. Companies can turn their stocks into tokenized assets through the XSC contract, facilitating the trading of these stocks on Dusk's blockchain, while ensuring end-user privacy and adherence to compliance standards such as the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive II (MiFID II) and Market in Crypto Assets (MiCA).

This modern approach through creating a tokenized real world asset creates more liquidity and enhances transparency since all transactions are automatically recorded on the blockchain and can be audited. Additionally, Dusk's affiliation with NPEX, a holder of a Multilateral Trading Facility (MTF) license, ensures the tokenization process is in compliance with stringent EU standards.

Notably, the tokenization of stocks into digital assets also allows for fractional ownership, making the market accessible to a broader range of investors. Traditional finance, once reserved for large financial institutions is now within reach, leading to more liquidity for both buyers and sellers, and a more democratic trading process. The streamlined and compliant process offered by Dusk significantly lowers the barriers to entry for SMEs while increasing capital efficiency. It empowers them to participate in the issuance of stocks, and government bonds, which was previously a challenging endeavor due to the complexities and high costs involved.

A laptop is on top of a desk and shows an image of a house, on a contract

Case Study 2: Real Estate Tokenization

In today's real estate investment landscape, a significant barrier to entry exists for small-scale investors due to the high capital required. Consequently, a large segment of potential investors remains untapped, leading to reduced liquidity in the real estate market. 

The traditional model of real estate investment also leads to inefficiencies such as the lack of due diligence, transparency and potential disputes, largely due to manually managed and fragmented record keeping. This situation is particularly challenging for property management firms seeking efficient ways to manage and track property ownership and related transactions.

Through its tokenization process, Dusk allows property management firms to convert real estate ownership into digital tokens. This step transforms how real estate is traditionally managed and invested, by introducing the possibility of fractional ownership. Now, even small investors can participate in real estate ventures, leading to a more inclusive investment landscape and increased liquidity in emerging markets, while opening up new possibillities, for example fractionalized real estate funds.

Moreover, all transactions related to these tokens are automatically tracked on Dusk, fostering transparency and reducing the potential for disputes. This transparency provides an added layer of security and trust for both investors and property management firms, streamlining the investment yield overall management process.

A laptop on a desk showing the words "KYC Procedure" with an image of a man

Case Study 3: KYC Solution for RWAs

Citadel by Dusk is a revolutionary KYC solution that leverages zero-knowledge proof technology, providing users complete control over their data sharing and storage. This innovation is particularly impactful in the realm of RWA tokenization, a process that necessitates stringent and reliable identity verification.

Imagine a scenario where a financial institution, dealing with tokenization of tangible assets, is struggling with prolonged client onboarding processes and potential data breaches. Here's where Citadel offers a cutting-edge solution. It employs a revocable license-based model for identity verification. For instance, a user seeking to invest in tokenized real world assets assets and needing to verify they meet specific criteria, such as being above 18 years old or being a resident of a particular jurisdiction, would be issued a license - a one-time consumable proof verifying these details.

In the dynamic world of RWA tokenization, where swift, secure, and accurate identity verification is paramount, Citadel's approach not only streamlines KYC processes but also drastically reduces reliance on third parties and minimizes data leakage risk. As a result, Citadel enables an efficient, cost-effective, and secure KYC/AML compliance process, which is integral to the tokenization and lifecycle management of real-world digital assets.

Dusk provides Citadel as an on-chain solution, integrating seamlessly with the Dusk protocol, but also an off-chain solution called Shelter.

A laptop with "TM" in bold letters on the screen

Case Study 4: Tokenization of Intellectual Property

Intellectual Property (IP) is a highly valuable asset class often overlooked due to its intangible nature. Traditionally, managing and monetizing IP as asset classes has been challenging because of the difficulty in verifying ownership, determining value and finding buyers. The result is that much IP is often underutilized, undervalued and centralized in the hands of IP companies.

With Dusk, IP holders can tokenize their IP through the Confidential Security Token (XSC) contract. This enables this asset class to be traded on the blockchain using smart contracts, while ensuring end-user privacy and adherence to regulatory standards. This process transforms IP into tradeable tokens, bringing liquidity and broader access to the IP market.

Imagine a technology company with a significant portfolio of patents. Through Dusk, the company can tokenize these patents, making them available to a wider range of investors. Transactions related to these tokens are automatically tracked and recorded on the blockchain, reducing the potential for disputes, and making IP trading more efficient and accessible.

Crucially, Dusk's XSC contract and its compliance features ensure adherence to various regulatory requirements and alignment with strict EU standards. 

Tokenization allows for fractional ownership of IP, opening the door for smaller investors who have previously been shut out of this market. This democratizes the IP trading process, broadens the investor base and increases liquidity for both buyers and sellers. 

By leveraging Dusk, IP owners, whether they are companies, researchers or artists, can monetize their assets more efficiently, giving them more freedom to innovate by getting returns on their time investment earlier. At the same time, investors gain access to a previously untapped asset class with significant growth potential, demonstrating how Dusk can revolutionize not just the traditional finance and securities trading, but the broader world of assets.

A laptop is on top of a desk and shows an image of a house, on a contract


RWAs are a multi-trillion dollar industry, and form the backbone of the world economy. There is increased interest from traditional financial institutions over the past few years, which is fast gaining momentum, to make use of blockchain technology to solve for multiple business and operational issues and expenses they encounter. 

Dusk is building infrastructure that is capable of onboarding not only the users but also institutions, and has the necessary expertise in and focus on compliance, privacy, and business needs to support both end-users and big institutions. 

We firmly believe that the tokenization of RWAs and decentralized finance will have a positive impact on users and institutions alike, and we are proud to have predicted this movement since starting Dusk back in 2018. As we gear up for mainnet next year, we are excited to see how our technology and infrastructure will impact the economy and the way finance is done.

About Dusk

Dusk Network is the privacy blockchain for all financial products and applications. A new standard for compliance, control, and collaboration. Our mission is to enable enterprises of any size to collaborate at scale, meet compliance requirements and ensure that personal and transaction data remains confidential. Want to be part of what we're doing? 

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